Alternate Aquaculture Vaccine Delivery System

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Sponsors Uidaho CNR
Team Name Fish-Vac
Duration Summer 2020 - Fall 2020
Faculty Adviser
  • Dr. Matthew Swenson
Mentor
  • Max Johnson
Client
  • Dr. Ken Cain
Team Members
  • Hasan Alajmi
  • Khari Amos
  • Cody Gibson
  • Ben McBride








Problem Definition[edit]

Project Goal: The goal of this project is to develop an alternate aquaculture vaccine delivery system to enhance antigen uptake and protection in juvenile salmonids.

Background[edit]

Fish vaccines used for aquaculture species are typically delivered by injection, immersion, or oral (feed) delivery. Of these methods, injection vaccination is by far the most effective and provides the greatest level of protection from disease. This is primarily due to direct delivery of antigens to immune cells rather than relying on uptake across the integument (skin) such as for immersion vaccination, or the need for intact antigens to pass through the harsh environment of the stomach during oral vaccination. Immersion and oral vaccines are the methods of choice for mass vaccination of small fish (1-15g) because of the ease of delivery when compared to injecting large numbers of small fish. However, if a mass vaccine delivery method could be developed that “injected” a vaccine into the integument in a new way and provide greater disease protection than immersion or oral vaccination, it would revolutionize the aquaculture industry.

Fishtub.jpg
Imersion.jpg













Deliverables[edit]

The Device Must:

  • Create a puncture or break in the integument(skin) of small fish without causing injury.
  • Be designed to see repeated use.
  • Be designed in a way that allows the transfer of used and new vaccine solution in and out of the system.
  • Meet or exceed all IACUC regulations for animal research.

Specifications[edit]

Product Specifications:

  • Must be sized for bench top testing version (1L of fluid and 240g of fish)
  • Must be upscaled to hold 30 gal and be 27.4kg of fish at a time
  • Must be functional for 1g-5g fish
  • Must create puncture or integument(skin) of 85% of the fish
  • Must allow for proper cleaning
  • Must allow for all consumables to be easily changed
  • Must be made of non-porous material i.e. polished stainless steel and UHMW
  • Must have full operational capabilities in environments with both fresh and salt water around 15°C
  • Must be capable of doing all necessary fluid changes
  • The components shall comply with the Animal care and use protocol standards

Value Proposition Statement[edit]

Delivering vaccinations to humans 1 by 1 or by appointment is easy due to the construct of our society and freedom of communication. When giving vaccinations to hundreds of fish, scientists use the immersion vaccination method. This method submerges the animal into a water and vaccine bath, where the treatment is absorbed through the skin. The largest issue in utilizing this method, is the time it takes for the skin to uptake the medicine. Our project is constructed to assist in this method and cut down the immersion time. Our model works as a funnel for fish to to pass through, be harmlessly pierced by hypodermic needles, and to be briefly treated in a vaccinated bath. Our product will enhance the vaccine-skin uptake and make the immersion treatment method more effective and efficient to fish.

Design Considerations[edit]

When developing the device the following need to be considered:

  • Materials such as wood, galvanized steel, and carbon steels cannot be used.
  • If electrical components are used they must be sealed and water tight.
  • All components of the system should be light and small enough for one person to safely handle.
  • All components need to be easily accessed in order to be disinfected between uses.
  • The first prototype should be able to handle 240 grams of fish per vaccine dip.
  • Holding tank drains will be compatible with hoses for easy emptying and refilling of tanks.

Project Learning[edit]

Initial Design Concepts[edit]

Initial Design Idea:
Figure Description
Bedofneedles.jpg
Bed of Needles:
  • Requires water to be drained from the tank r a large platform to be lowered into the tank
  • Would require 1000's of needles
  • A bed of needles isn't a readily available item

Micro-Needle Roller[edit]

Micro-Needle Rollers:
Figure Description
Dermaroller.jpg
  • This product is a small cylindrical roller with exposed microneedles
  • Commonly used to pierce the skin of humans to promote collagen development
  • This product is adjustable, easily replaceable and relatively cheap

Design Concepts Using Micro-Needle Roller[edit]

Designs Implementing Use of Micro-Needle Rollers:
Sketches Description
Basket1.jpg
  • Abrasion Column: This tank has an open base that allows fish to fall through when raised. Micro needle rollers pierce the fish skin.


  • Treatment Bowl: This bowl allows the vaccine and fish to interact with one another for given amount of time. When time is reached, bowl drains vaccine and carries fish to be released into neutral environment.


  • Solid Bowl: This bowl allows all sections and variables to be controlled and kept together.


  • Compact and simple design with no expensive mechanical instruments.


Basket2.jpg
  • Abrasion and Overflow Plate: Fish will be dumped on the abrasion plate, piercing the fish. The overflow plate will catch the fish falling through the space between the roller and plate, then slid into vaccine bowl.


  • Solid Bowl: This bowl allows all sections and variables to be controlled and kept together.


  • Treatment Bowl: This bowl allows the vaccine and fish to interact with one another for given amount of time. When time is reached, bowl drains vaccine and carries fish to be released into neutral environment.
Chute B.png
  • Chute: For this design the fish along with water will be dumped into a pyramid shaped chute with a slot at the bottom. Positioned at the bottom of this slot will be one needled roller and one smooth roller. The fish will be forced between the rollers, then will fall onto an inclined plane of slotted UHMW which will remove the excess water before dropping them into the vaccine tank.
Tube1.png
  • Tube: For this design fish as well as rearing water will be poured into the top of the tube, which will flow down to a cone which will direct the fish into a stream that will flow over the roller which is mounted in a second tube. The rearing water will then be drained off and the fish will be deposited into the vaccination tank.
CandC.jpg
  • Chute: This is an open top chute design. Fish will be poured into the top of the chute via net. A small set of spray nozzles will be placed near the top of the chute to assist the fish as they slide down to the rollers. A small sump pump will be placed in the vaccination tank below the chute so there is no need to add or remove rearing water. Two rollers will be placed at the chute exit. The top roller will be smooth and will adjust up and down for a range of fish sizes. The lower roller will be the needle roller.


  • Cart: To make the system portable a cart will be used to transport the chute and vaccination tank. The chute will bolt to the cart and will accommodate a variety of tank sizes. Tanks will be removable to allow fast changeovers of vaccination fluid. A second net in this process will be placed in the tank prior to pouring fish into the chute to save time with netting.

Additional Research[edit]

Research:
Topic Description
Pump:
Fishpump.jpg
  • 12 V sprayer pump should be great for our application.
  • They are relatively cheap, and they meet the necessary criteria:Self Priming, Modular, Must have at least 5 feet of vacuum, Pump more than 1 gpm, Standard sizes for fittings, Can be hard mounted
  • A 120 V to 12 V may have to be used to accommodate the labs power source
Transportation of Fish: Verbal conversation with Mr. Ford. He worked in Ken Cain’s lab for a year while attending the university of Idaho. He has an associates in Aquaculture for the College of Southern Idaho.
  • Fish are moved from one place to another primarily using nets and tanks
  • Other facilities that Mr.Ford worked (Evaqua, CSI fish hatchery, Pahsimeroi fish hatchery) also use the same methods of moving fish from one location to another
  • For moving fish long distances to restock ponds, he used a fish stocking unit which was a large truck with a tank. When arriving at the location, the fish were evacuated through pipes that used gravity for draining
  • Most of his experience of moving fish was when the fish were larger (6 inches and greater)
  • Link to IDFG video for fish transportation :https://youtube/F4SkXAG6mfg
Fish Testing in Ken Cain's Lab: Verbal conversation with Mr. Vega. He worked in Ken Cain’s lab for a semester. He has an associates in Aquaculture for the College of Southern Idaho.
  • In Ken Cain's lab, tests are done in what are called challenge rooms
  • Tanks in challenge rooms are around the size of an ice cream tub or 5 gallon bucket
  • A stand for the apparatus is needed keep it upright inside of the small tanks
  • Stand heights can vary to supports different water levels

Initial Prototype[edit]

Progression of Initial Prototype:
Figure Description
Intproto.jpg
3D Model:
  • Funnel Material-Acrylic
  • Roller Mounts-Stainless Steel
  • Weight of Funnel with Rollers-1 lb. 8 oz.
  • Top Opening Dimension-(10x10) in.
  • Bottom Opening Dimension-(1x1) in.
  • Stand Width-(5x5) in.


Cardboard.jpg
Cardboard Model:
  • The cardboard model was created to validate the 3D model.
  • This model was used for a meeting with our client to better explain our design and give a 3D visual aid of actual size.
Currentproto1.jpg
Current Stage of Initial Prototype:
  • The acrylic funnel has been cut,prepped, and glued together.
  • The roller mounts have been cut out of stainless steel and are in the process of being welded
  • 3 different lengths of needle rollers have been disassembled and are ready to be placed in the roller mount when finished

Final Prototype[edit]

Progression of Final Prototype:
Figure Description
Finalproto1.jpg
3D Model:
  • The size of the funnel has been increased to handle more fish
  • Implements a pump and nozzles to help move fish through the chute
  • Can be carried by one person
  • The frame is adjustable for a range of tank sizes
  • Chute separates from the frame to make the system easier to transport

Validation[edit]

Skin Puncturing Tests[edit]

Designs Progression of Initial Prototype:
Figure Description
Fishtest1.jpg
Test 1:
  • Fish carcasses we acquired from Dr.Ken Cains lab for testing skin thickness
  • A 22 gauge hypodermic needle was used in the left 2 pictures to determine skin thickness
  • Skin thickness was found to be ~.25mm
  • The body weight of the fish (~3 grams) was used to determine the force required to puncture the skin
  • The photo on the right was a test to determine if a fish would be able to slide into a needle on the same incline as the initial prototype
  • A .5mm roller was rolled over a fish carcass to determine if the needles would puncture the skin and it was found that the skin could not be punctured without an excessive amount of force.

Fish Cycle Validation[edit]

This is the cycle or flow of fish that will be seen during our testing of the initial prototype:


Fishflow.jpg

Team Members[edit]

Cody G.jpg

Cody Gibson

Major: Mechanical Engineering

Hometown: Burley, Idaho

Responsibility: Wiki Page, Documentation

Email: gibs7646@vandals.uidaho.edu


Ben M.png

Ben McBride

Major: Mechanical Engineering

Hometown: Idaho Falls, Idaho

Responsibility: Project Manager

Email: mcbr5602@vandals.uidaho.edu


Hasan A.jpg

Hasan Alajmi

Major: Mechanical Engineering

Hometown: Kuwait

Responsibility: Solid Modeling, Budget

Email: alaj9683@vandals.uidaho.edu


Khari A.jpg

Khari Amos

Major: Material Science Engineering

Hometown: Idaho Falls, Idaho

Responsibility:Communications

Email: amos8304@vandals.uidaho.edu


Additional Documentation[edit]

Budget


Client Interview


Design Validation Plan


Meeting Minutes

Presentations


Product Requirements


Project Schedule


Team Contract