UI Marching Band Mobility Platform

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[[File:
The Beast Logo
|300px|center|alt=]]
Sponsors
Team Name The Beast
Duration Summer 2019 - Fall 2019
Faculty Adviser
  • Mathew Swenson, Ph.D., P.E.
  • Edwin Odom, Ph.D., P.E.
  • Bill Magnie
Mentor
  • Selso Gallegos
Client
  • Spencer Martin, M.M. / Lionel Hampton School of Music
Team Members
  • Ali Alghubari
  • Mohammed Almomen
  • Nicholas Brubaker
  • Christopher Douglas
  • William Skidmore

It is the goal of the University of Idaho Mechanical Engineering Department to design and fabricate a "Band Mobility Platform" (BMP) for the University of Idaho Marching Band as a continuation of the "Band-Beesten" legacy. The BMP will be an electrically-driven, remote-controlled stage that enables a variety of otherwise stationary performers to perform with a stunning light show in coordination with the marching band.


Problem Definition[edit]

Background[edit]

The Band-Beesten legacy was ignited way back in the 2011-2012 academic year with Dr. Odom and the music department to remove the University of Idaho Marching Band's drummer's burden of carrying the drum set during performances. Since that day class after class of mechanical engineering students have worked to further refine and develop this product to levels unimaginable at the time.Team Drum Roll
Front page 3.jpg
In 2013-2014, the students succeeded in developing what the previous class could not. They eliminated the need for human power with a "ballbot" powered drive system. The "ballbot" consisted of three motors attached to the ball of the "ballbot" allowing for full translational movement of the ball as dictated by the walking motion of the drummer. The Band-Beesten Experience
Ballbot.jpg
In 2014-2015, the next class senior design students developed the design into an RC controlled triangular platform with onmi-directional wheels. The triangular platform was capable of reliably supporting and moving a load of 250 lbs. Band-Beesten
Band-Beesten.jpg
The following year, the platform was modified to accept both the drumset and paino. Band-Beesten
Band-Beesten-Piano.jpg

Deliverables[edit]

Small Scale Model to Demonstrate Project Feasibility

  • Primitive Circuitry and Motor Control Algorithms
  • Laser Cut Wooden Frame and Bolt and Spring-Bolt Suspension System

Full Scale Prototype

  • Refined Circuitry, Motor Control Algorithms, and Recharging System
  • Aluminum Frame with Independent Suspension System and Variable/Modular Wheel Positioning
  • Fully Function Performance Activated Lighting Arrangement

Modeling of Finished Design

  • 3-D Model of the Frame and Suspension System
  • Structural Analysis of the Frame and Suspension System
  • Circuit Analysis on the Power-Control System

Experimental Results/Design Validation

  • Translational and Rotational Speed
  • Stability Under Static and Dynamic Loads
  • Battery Duty and Recharge Cycle Periods

Specifications[edit]

Functional Requirements

  • Motion shall be controlled via remote control by a pilot not located on the platform.
  • The lights of the BMP shall be controlled by the musician located on the on the BMP via regular playing of the applicable instrument which activates shock activated piezoelectric sensors.

Mechanical Requirements

  • The design shall be able to support,translate,and rotate a load of 1500 lbs.
  • The stage shall not exceed a length 9 ft nor a width of 7 ft.
  • The total system shall weigh no more than 500lbs.
  • The design shall have a universal mounting system to accommodate a drum set, piano, and a txalaparta.
  • The system shall have a life cycle of years with no component failures.
  • The platform shall translate at a marching pace of 160 steps per minute with a stride of 23 in.
  • The wheels shall remain in contact with the Kibbie Dome field terrain and support equal loading at all times.

Electrical Requirements

  • During operation the voltage shall remain at 24V. The total amps constantly consumed by the system should not exceed 30 amps.
  • The PCS shall be designed with a capacity to operate the entire BMP for a minimum of 15 minutes on a single charge.

Software Requirements

  • The software shall be capable of receiving RC input signals from a maximum distance of 70 yards and input signals from the instrument-mounted sensors. The software shall be capable of distributing power from the battery bank to the PCS, motors, and lights as received by the RO and performer.
  • The RO shall utilize a standard radio controller with joy sticks for controlling the left-right and forward-reverse translational movements of the BMP. The performers will control the lights via the drum set and/or the piano.

Environmental Requirements

  • The Product is expected to have full operational capabilities in environments with ambient temperatures of 32F to 100F.
  • The PCS shall comply with the UL 1642 standard for lithium batteries.

Cost Requirements

  • Cost to build a POC prototype shall not exceed $1400.

Design Considerations[edit]

Frame and Suspension Initial Concepts[edit]

Concept Depiction Movement Qualities
4 Wheel Flex Frame Initial Design with 45 Deg. Wheel Offset
  • Favorable for Rotational Motion
  • Equally Unfavorable Translational Motion in Both L/R and F/R Directions
4 Wheel Independent Suspension Initial Frame Design with Centered Wheels
  • Favorable for Both Translational and Rotational Motion
  • Unstable Load Support
4 Wheel Independent Suspension Design with 90 Deg. Offset Wheels
  • Favorable for Rotational Motion
  • Unfavorable for Translational Motion Due to Control Complexity
6 Wheel Symmetrical Independent Suspension Frame
  • Favorable for Translational and Rotational Motion
  • Unfavorable Due Initial Budget Restrictions

Final Conceptual Design[edit]

Modular Variable Wheel Quantity and Offset with Independent Suspension

Full-Scale Assembly
  • 4 Wheel Modular Configuration
  • 3 Offset Positions
  • Independent Suspension with 4-Bar Linkage
  • 80/20 Modular Frame
  • Universal Mounting Points
  • AC Plugs for Instruments
  • Under-Surface Power Control System
Wheel-Suspension Assembly w/o Wheel
  • 4-Bar Linkage
  • Coilover Strut
  • Easily Removed from and Re-Attached to 80/20 Frame
  • 8:1 Gear-Box and Motor
Frame Top Surface
  • Non-Slip Surface
  • Universal Instrument Mounting
  • Personnel Mounts to Secure Performers
  • AC Power Outlets
Bottom of Frame
  • Nissan Leaf Batteries and Power Control System Brains Under-Surface Mounted

Project Learning[edit]

Frame and Suspension[edit]

Asymmetric Double Wishbone
The first design iteration was an asymmetric double wishbone frame with three points of contact between the frames and the ground, even load distribution would be assured via flexing of the frames. The most notable problem with this design was the asymmetric frame and wheel positioning would prevent smooth forward and reverse translation. The second most notable problem with this design was that the frame would have to be fine tuned for a very specific stiffness to act as both a suspension and safe support structure.

Six Wheeled Symmetric Double Wishbone
The second design was the same concept as the previous design double frame except the wheel placement was symmetric which would allow for unbiased translational movement. This design better meets the customer requirements as translational movement is a higher priority than rotational movement. However, the problem of the complex frame still persists.

Six Wheeled Single Frame Independent Suspension
The third design was to eliminate the double wishbone frame for a single frame with independent suspension to reduce the cost the design and the complexity of the development. The single frame independent suspension design allows for the same even load distribution as before but with design better for manufacturablity, for the much of the suspension is able to be purchased off the shelf.

Four Wheels Variable Offset
Next we reduced the number of wheels to 4 to further reduce costs, complexity, and weight. This creates a greater challenge for designing for both translational and rotational movement while maintaining stability. Several wheel configurations were considered including perimeter centered perimeter parallel, corner positioned perimeter parallel, corner positioned 45 deg. offset, and corner positioned 90 deg. offset. Ultimately, it was decided to use corner positioned wheels with variable offset.

Four/Six Wheels Variable Offset
Lastly, it was discovered that reducing the number of wheels to 4 would place too much force on the wheels under full intended capacity. To solve this problem, it was decided that the wheels would be modular with variable positioning allowing for 4 or 6 wheels to be used with variable positioning possible for the 4 corner mounted wheels.

80/20 As Frame
80/20 as frame has several pro and cons.

Pros: Orderable cut to length, strong, highly modular, and strong customer support.

Cons: Difficult to assemble for complex structures, requires significant foresight for fastener placement during assembly, and large amount of disassembly required for re-configuring the frame or replacing some parts.

Small Scale Programming and Circuitry[edit]

Signal Receiving
As per the customer requirements, the system shall be controlled by a pilot using remote control; this presented the problem of how to interpret the signal from the receiver. Using an Arduino Uno, attempting to quantify the signal as pseudo analog measure of voltage intensity proved to not be possible. It was discovered that the signal is entirely digital and required a measure of the period between high (5V) pulses. This pulse width varies linearly depending on user input allowing for simple quantification.

Signal Processing
Reading the signal from the receiver created an additional problem for processing the signal. The measure of pulse width requires a pause in processing to count the time between pulses which distorts the signal once too many inputs are being read at once. This led to the discovery that the maximum number of inputs readable from the receiver is 2.

This problem suggests two viable solutions. Use a controller with larger processing power, use more than one controller, or create a control algorithm can translate and rotate the platform with only two input signals.

Circuitry
To distribute power to the DC motors, H-Bridges capable of controlling two motors each were used which placed restrictions on safe current levels. The TI-L293D H-Bridge has a current limitation of 600 mA, and the current drawn by our motors was measured to be vastly below this at 1.4 mA each. Despite the safe levels, H-Bridges were rendered inoperable after more than 20 minutes of total run time. This means that to build a fully operational early control system that wont burn up 24 volt motor controllers with heat sinks will have to be used for the small scale proof of concept.

Full Scale Programing and Circuitry[edit]

Signal Processing
Utilizing (2) Arduinos ((1) for translational and (1) for rotational) for signal processing is a viable solution. Additionally, the (2) Arduinos may be used without a master/slave relationship preventing latency issues that would otherwise occur.

Operating the motor drivers requires use of servo outputs on a scale of 0-180 degrees with 0 and 180 dictating both direction and speed. When operating the motor drivers, a soft acceleration limiting algorithm is essential to the longevity of the motor drivers. Failure to limit acceleration can result in over-current to the motor drivers.

Circuitry
To safely charge and discharge lithium ion batteries, a battery control circuit must be utilized. This battery control circuit will help to ensure balanced cells and that no continuous over/under current/voltage occurs.

Power to the motor drivers should be conditioned to create a more "steady-state" circuit. To condition the power capacitors maybe used parallel to the motor drivers to help minimize fluctuations in the load. Additionally linear 5V power supplies should be used to power the Arduinos and RC receiver to avoid using the battery eliminating circuits built into the motor drivers. These BEC circuits are more appropriate for the powering of cooling fans for motor drivers.

The 12 ga. wire currently used by the motors is under for the 80A continuous max rating at 24V. Wires of ga. 4 or 8 would be more appropriate depending upon wire lengths.

Final Design[edit]

Sub Assemblies

Exploded View Assembled View Features
Exploded View NA
Collapsed View Frame Assembly
  • Rigid 80/20 Modular Frame
  • Cost Effective and Strong 3/4" Plywood Decking
  • Single Allen Wrench Required for Disassembly
Exploded View, Wheel-Hub Assembly
Collapsed Wheel-Hub Assembly
  • 4-Bar Linkage for Ensured Vertical Wheel
  • Independent Suspension for Equal Weight Distribution and Shock Absorption
  • Omni-Directional Wheels for Full Translation and Rotational Ability
  • 24:1 Gear Reduction for Low Speed-High Torque Operation
  • Modular Positioning
Exploded View Control Panel Assembly
Collapsed View Control Panel Assembly
  • Easy to Manufacture Laser Cut Wood Tray
  • Easy to Remove Wood Tray
  • No set Holes for Modularity
  • Cost Effective Arduino Controlled Signal Processing
  • Battery Control Module for Safe Lithium Ion Battery Operation
Exploded View Battery Assembly
Collapsed View Battery Assembly
  • Widely Available and Reliable Nissan Leaf Lithium Ion Battery Modules
  • Cost Effective Sheet Metal Housing for Added Protection
  • Plate Steel for Mounting and Additional Fire Barrier
  • Springs for Added Isolation from Frame
  • Frame Mounted L-Brackets for Easy Installation
Exploded View Control Box Assembly
Collapsed View User Interface Assembly
  • Simple Single Button, Single Toggle Switch Layout
  • Easy to Activate Emergency ON/OFF
  • Easy to Assembly and Replace Laser Cut Wood Housing
Exploded View Control Panel Door Assembly
Collapsed View Control Panel Door Assembly
  • Cost Effective Sheet Metal Door for Circuit Panel Protection
  • Simple Thumb Screw Open/Closing

Status of Completion

Concept Realization Status
Conceptual BMP Full Assembly
Built BMP, Full Assembly
  • Frame, Wheel-Hub, and Electrical Assemblies Full Assembled.
  • Frame and Wheel-Hub Assemblies Tested and Validated
  • Electrical Testing and Validation not Completed Due to Malfunction During Testing Along with Time and Budgetary Constraints
  • Lighting System and Mounting Assemblies not Completed Due to Time and Budgetary Constraints

Validation[edit]

Requirement Test Test Subject Target Date Result Recommendation
The total system with its tallest mounted insrument shall not exceed a volume of L 9 ft x W 7 ft x H 10 ft.

Measure the length, width, and height.

Fully functional prototype.

9/30/2019

10/1/2019
L 9.5 ft X W 7ft

Find a way to tuck the wheel hub assemblies under the frame to reduce total foot print.

The total system shall not exceed 500 lbf.

Locate a hydraulic bottle jack on a scale under the mass center of the system. Raise the system until the wheels loose contact with the ground. Record the value minus the weight of the bottle jack and any other support material.

Fully functional prototype

11/01/19

11/18/2019
364.7 Lb

N/A

The total system shall nominally translate at a pace of 160 steps/min and a stride of 23 in. (5.1 ft/s).

Place markers at the start and finish of a 50ft distance. Record the amount of time it takes to translate he total distance.

Fully functional prototype

11/01/19

Untested

New spec'd motors, motor drivers, and power conditioning are needed.

All wheels shall remain in contact with the ground under equal loading at all times.

Measure weight with a scale under each wheel with weight located in different locations on the platform.

Fully functional prototype.

9/30/2019

11/18/2019
With-in 1Lb

Try adjusting spring on a true flat surface.

Individual wheels will deflect vertically enough to clear a human toe(3/4' - 1").

Run rig over test block at set height, ensuring deflection and continuation of movement.

Fully functional prototype

9/30/2019

Untested

N/A

The PCS shall be designed with a capacity to operate the entire BMP for a minimum of 15 minutes on a single charge.

Operate system under max capacity on astroturf for a period of 15 minutes on a single charge.

Fully functional prototype.

11/01/19

Untested

N/A

The software shall be capable of receiving RC input signals from a maximum distance of 70 yards and input signals from the instrument-mounted sensors.

Operate the system using the remote control at a distance of no less than 70 yards.

Fully functional prototype

11/01/19

Untested

RC receiver damaged during testing. Replacement unit needs to be purchased.

Verfiy light system is full functioning.

Perform on the various insrtuments with lights turned on.

Fully functional prototype

11/01/19

Untested

N/A

Future Work[edit]

  • Electrical System
  1. New Motors and/or Motor Drivers for Larger Scale
  2. New Charging Appropriate Power Supply or Battery Charging System Needs to be Redesigned to Charge with a 6S Charger
  3. 5V Linear Power Supply for Replace Battery Elimination Circuit Power for Arduinos and RC Receiver
  4. New Acceleration Limiting Algorithm
  5. Power Conditioning Circuit for Motor Power
  6. Alternative DC-AC Inverters for 24V System
  7. Addition of Lighting System

Team Members[edit]

Ali Alghubari

Major: Mechanical Engineering
Hometown: Najran, Saudi Arabia
Responsibility: Manufacturing
Email: algh3229@vandals.uidaho.edu


Mohammed Almomen

Major: Mechanical Engineering
Hometown: Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
Responsibility: Documentation
Email: almo3456@vandals.uidaho.edu


Nick Brubaker

Major: Mechanical Engineering
Hometown: Kennewick, WA
Responsibility: Frame Assembly
Email: brub8655@vandals.uidaho.edu


Chris Douglas

Major: Mechanical Engineering
Hometown: New Castle, PA
Responsibility: Power Control System
Email: doug7623@vandals.uidaho.edu


Will Skidmore

Major: Mechanical Engineering
Hometown: Sandpoint, ID
Responsibility: Wheel-Suspension Assembly
Email: skid9753@vandals.uidaho.edu


Additional Documentation and Information[edit]

Project Schedule[edit]

Notable Dates[edit]

Controls Proof of Concept: 07/16/19
Final Design: 07/22/19
Small Scale Build: 08/02/19
Wheel Assembly Prototype: 08/24/19
Fully Assembled Prototype: 09/18/19
Validation Completion: 10/16/19
Delivery to Customer: 10/22/19
Game Day Demonstration: 11/02/19

Documentation[edit]

Snapshot 1
File:Project Schedule The Beast Su-Fall 07-21-19.pdf
Snapshot 2
File:Project Schedule The Beast Su-Fall 08-02-19.pdf
Snapshot 3
File:New Project Schedule The Beast Fall10-1-19.pdf

Budget[edit]

Snapshot 1
File:Budget Su-Fall 07-21-19.pdf
Snapshot 2
File:Budget Su-Fall 08-02-19.pdf
Snapshot 3
File:Copy of Budget Su-Fall 11-12-2019.pdf

Meeting Minutes[edit]

Team Meetings

File:1 Monday 06-17-19.pdf
File:2 Wednesday 06-19-19.pdf
File:3 Monday 06-24-19.pdf
File:4 Wednesday 06-26-19.pdf
File:5 Monday 07-01-19.pdf
File:6 Wednesday 07-03-19.pdf
File:7 Monday 07-08-19.pdf
File:8 Friday 07-12-19.pdf
File:9 Monday 07-15-19.pdf
File:10 Monday 07-22-19.pdf
File:11 Monday 07-29-19.pdf
File:12 Wednesday 07-31-19.pdf

Mentor Meetings

File:1 Tuesday 06-18-19.pdf
File:2 Tuesday 06-25-19.pdf
File:3 Tuesday 07-02-19.pdf
File:4 Tuesday 07-09-19.pdf
File:5 Tuesday 07-16-19.pdf
File:6 Tuesday 07-23-19.pdf
File:7 Tuesday 07-30-19.pdf
File:8 Monday 08-26-19.pdf
File:9 Monday 09-09-19.pdf
File:10 Monday 09-16-19.pdf
File:11 Monday 09-23-19.pdf
File:12 Monday 10-07-19.pdf
File:13 Monday 10-14-19.pdf
File:14 Monday 10-21-19.pdf
File:15 Monday 11-04-19.pdf
File:16 Monday 11-11-19.pdf

Customer Relations[edit]

Client Interview

File:Product Requirements(1).pdf